Glossary†

Absorbability – The ability of a supplement or medication to be assimilated into the bloodstream, digestive system or other parts of the body where needed. [1]Webster’s New World Dictionary, Third College Edition

Antioxidant – A molecule capable of slowing or preventing the oxidation of other molecules. Oxidation reactions can produce free radicals, which start chain reactions that damage cells. Antioxidants are also widely used as ingredients in dietary supplements as studies suggest they may help maintain coronary health and lower the risk of diseases such as cancer. Vitamins A, C and E are antioxidants. Antioxidants are found in varying amounts in foods such as vegetables, fruits, grain cereals, legumes and nuts. [2]Wikipedia

Bioavailability – The rate at which a compound enters the bloodstream and is circulated to specific organs or tissues. [1]Webster’s New World Dictionary, Third College Edition

Biotin – Biotin is essential in the metabolism of proteins and carbohydrates and in the synthesis of hormones and cholesterol. [3]http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002418.htm

Benzoate – Also called benzoic acid. This food preservative is a colorless crystalline solid found in some natural resins and manufactured synthetically. [4]MSN Encarta

Calcium – The most plentiful mineral found in the human body. Calcium accounts for 1.5 to 2 percent of an adult's total body weight. The teeth and bones contain the majority of the body's calcium (about 99%). Calcium in these tissues is concentrated in the form of calcium phosphate salts. Body tissues, blood and other body fluids contain the remaining calcium (1%). [5]WebMD

Calcium Citrate – Calcium mixed with a citric acid derivative. Citric acid is a weak colorless acid obtained from citrus fruit and assists in calcium absorption. [4]MSN Encarta

Calcium Malate – Calcium bound to malic acid, a colorless crystalline solid found in fruits such as apples. Calcium malate has enhanced absorption potential. [4]MSN Encarta

Chondroitin Sulfate – The most plentiful type of glycosaminoglycans (GAG) or complex carbohydrates that make up 5 to 20 percent of cartilage tissue. It is found in both human and animal cartilage. [6]Gale Encyclopedia of Alternative Medicine

Chromium (Chromium Chloride) – Chromium is an essential mineral that is not made by the body and must be obtained from the diet. It plays an important role in the metabolism of fats and carbohydrates. [3]http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002418.htm

Collagen – A fibrous protein found in skin, bone, cartilage, tendon, and other connective tissue. [4]MSN Encarta

Colloidal – Containing an evenly dispersed mixture of several compounds. [2]Wikipedia

Folic Acid – Folic acid or folate is a water-soluble form of the B vitamin. Folic acid is necessary for the production and maintenance of new cells. Folic acid is needed to make DNA and RNA, the building blocks of cells. [7]http://www.cc.nih.gov/ccc/supplements/vitb6.html#what

Glucosamine – A molecule derived from sugar glucose by the addition of an amino group. Glucosamine is a component of a number of structures including the blood group substances and cartilage. As a nutritional supplement, glucosamine may provide support for joints. [8]Medicinenet.com

Glucosamine HCl – Glucosamine hydrochloride, one of three types of glucosamine commercially available today. The other types are glucosamine sulfate and N-acetyl glucosamine. Pure glucosamine HCl is about 83 percent in glucosamine base; pure glucosamine sulfate is about 65 percent in glucosamine base; and pure N-acetyl glucosamine is about 75 percent in glucosamine base. [9]2001 PDR for Nutritional Supplements

Liquid Suspension – A substance with particles dispersed throughout a fluid but not dissolved in it. The particles of active ingredients in Drinkables® supplements are dispersed within a liquid suspension.

Lutein – Lutein is a carotenoid, one category of antioxidants. It is concentrated in the retina and lens of the eye.

Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) – An organic, sulfur-containing compound that occurs naturally in a variety of fruits, vegetables and grains as well as in animals and humans in trace amounts. [9]2001 PDR for Nutritional Supplements

Magnesium – An essential mineral in human nutrition that is involved in more than 300 metabolic reactions. Magnesium is necessary for every major biological process, including the production of cellular energy and the synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins. [9]2001 PDR for Nutritional Supplements

Manganese – An essential trace mineral in human and animal nutrition. Early research indicates manganese supplementation, in combination with calcium, zinc and copper, has been shown to support healthy joints. [9]2001 PDR for Nutritional Supplements

Niacin – Niacin or vitamin B3 is a water-soluble vitamin that assists in the function of the digestive system, skin, and nerves. It is also important for the conversion of food to energy. [10]MedLine Plus Medical Encyclopedia

Nutraceutical –Any substance that may be considered a food, or part of a food, which provides health benefits in supporting healthy structure or function of the body. A nutraceutical may be a naturally nutrient-rich food such as spirulina, garlic or soy; or it may be a specific component of a food, such as omega-3 oil from salmon. [8]Medicinenet.com

Nutritional Supplements – Vitamins, minerals or herbs that complement the nutrients provided by a balanced diet.

ORAC – Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) is a method of measuring antioxidant capacities of different foods [2]Wikipedia or a method of analyzing the antioxidant activity of fruits and vegetables. The higher the antioxidant capacity of a fruit or vegetable, the higher its ORAC score will be. [11]http://www.qdaily.com.au/Food%20for%20Thought/Glossary-170.aspx

Pantothenic Acid (Calcium Pantothenate) – Pantothenic acid is essential for the metabolism of food as well as the synthesis of hormones and cholesterol. [3]http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002418.htm

Polyphenol – Polyphenols are a group of chemical substances found in plants, characterized by the presence of more than one phenol unit per molecule. The health benefits of specific polyphenols, once known as vitamin P, are well-established and research indicates they may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. Notable sources of polyphenols in foods include berries, tea, beer, grapes/wine, olive oil, chocolate/cocoa, coffee, walnuts, peanuts, pomegranates, and yerba mate, with fruit skins providing the most highly concentrated levels of polyphenols.

Quercetin – Quercitin is a compound derived from red wine, citrus, onions, parsley, and tea. It has been used as an antioxidant and antiviral agent, and reported to help allergies, prostate inflammation, interstitial cystitis, atherosclerosis, and cataracts. [12]http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Quercetin

RDI – Reference Daily Intake, developed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to be used in labeling of foods, minerals and vitamins. RDIs are population-adjusted Recommended Daily Allowances based on all ages and gender groups. They are numerically identical to the highest RDA value for any group. [13]MCP Hahnemann University, Pittsburgh, web site

Resveratrol – Resveratrol is a polyphenol found in the skin of red grapes and is a constituent of red wine. Experiments have reported that resveratrol may produce anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, blood-sugar-lowering and other beneficial cardiovascular effects. [2]Wikipedia

Riboflavin – Riboflavin or vitamin B2 is a water-soluble vitamin required by the body for health, growth and reproduction.

Sodium Borate – Also called boron. A hard, brittle semi-metallic element, boron is a trace element needed for plant growth. Research suggests it is also nutritionally important for bone health in humans and other vertebrates. [4]MSN Encarta

Thiamin – Thiamin or vitamin B1 works with other B vitamins to help the body use the energy it gets from food. [14]http://www.umass.edu/nibble/infofile/thiamin.html

Tricalcium Phosphate – Also called calcium phosphate-tribasic and “bone ash.” This odorless, tasteless powder is used in antacids as an acid neutralizer and in calcium-replacement products.

Vitamin A – Vitamin A plays an important role in vision, bone growth, reproduction, cell division and cell differentiation, which is the process by which a cell decides what it is going to become. It also helps to maintain the surface linings of the eyes and the respiratory, urinary, and intestinal tracts. When those linings break down, bacteria can enter the body and cause infection. Vitamin A also helps maintain the integrity of skin and mucous membranes that function as a barrier to bacteria and viruses. [15]National Institutes of Health

Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine Hydrochloride) – Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin that is needed for more than 100 enzymes involved in protein metabolism. The nervous and immune systems also need vitamin B6 to function efficiently, and the vitamin is essential for red blood cell metabolism. In addition to helping make hemoglobin (which carries oxygen to the tissues), vitamin B6 helps to increase the amount of oxygen carried by the hemoglobin. [7]http://www.cc.nih.gov/ccc/supplements/vitb6.html#what

Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin) – Vitamin B12 helps maintain healthy nerve cells and red blood cells. It is also needed to make DNA, the genetic material in all cells. [16]http://www.cc.nih.gov

Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) – Vitamin C promotes healthy teeth and gums, helps in the absorption of iron and helps to maintain normal connective tissue. It also promotes wound healing.

Vitamin D (Cholecalciferol) – The major biologic function of vitamin D is to maintain normal blood levels of calcium and phosphorus. Vitamin D aids in the absorption of calcium, helping to form and maintain strong bones. [15]National Institutes of Health

Vitamin E (Alpha Tocopherol Acetate) – Alpha tocopherol is the most active form of vitamin E in humans and is a powerful biological antioxidant. Antioxidants protect cells against the effects of free radicals, which are potentially damaging by-products of the body’s metabolism.

Vitamin K – Derived from the word “koagulation,” which is German for clotting, vitamin K has been found to be involved in bone metabolism. In the past decade, vitamin K has been shown to promote processes in the body associated with healthy bones. In addition to supplements, vitamin K can be found in green leafy vegetables, liver and fish meal. [9]2001 PDR for Nutritional Supplements

VMS – Vitamins, Minerals and Supplements. This abbreviation is used frequently in the grocery, drug store and mass merchandising trades.

Zinc Gluconate – Zinc plays a critical role in growth, reproduction, the activation of vitamin A and a variety of other metabolic processes. However, the body is dependent on a continual external supply. Evidence indicates that many people do not receive the RDI of 15 mg per day, resulting in a need for supplementation. Zinc gluconate tends to be one of the best tolerated forms of zinc supplementation. [17]Real Vitamin and Mineral Book

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